Dr. Gabrielle Lyon: How to Exercise & Eat for Optimal Health & Longevity

Dr. Gabrielle Lyon: How to Exercise & Eat for Optimal Health & Longevity

Protocols Book; Dr. Gabrielle Lyon (00:00:00)

  • Dr. Andrew Huberman's new book, "Protocols", provides practical and informative guidelines for optimizing various aspects of health and performance, including sleep, motivation, nutrition, exercise, stress control, oral and gut microbiome, and creativity.
  • The book is designed to be user-friendly, allowing readers to easily find and implement protocols to address specific health concerns.
  • Muscle health is crucial for overall health and longevity, regardless of gender.
  • Nutrition and exercise play vital roles in maintaining healthy muscle tissue.
  • Building muscle is not the sole focus; improving muscle health supports brain health, body health, movement, and the health of every organ system in the body.
  • Dr. Lyon provides science-based protocols for everyday life, including specific dietary choices, food quantities, and efficient training regimens.
  • These protocols can significantly enhance muscle health and, consequently, the health of the entire brain and body.
  • The discussion is based on the latest research, clinical studies, and practical applications.

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  • Dr. Gabrielle Lyon is a physician, scientist, and author who specializes in women's health and longevity.
  • She is the founder and director of the Women's Health Research Institute at Stanford University.
  • Dr. Lyon's research focuses on the role of nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle factors in promoting women's health and longevity.
  • She is a leading expert on the science of aging and has published over 100 scientific papers on the topic.
  • Dr. Lyon is also a sought-after speaker and has given lectures all over the world on the topics of women's health, aging, and nutrition.
  • She is the author of several books, including "The Longevity Diet" and "The Menopause Reset."

Skeletal Muscle & Longevity (00:07:40)

  • Skeletal muscle is the organ of longevity.
  • It is responsible for 80% of glucose disposal.
  • It is an amino acid reservoir.
  • It is the body armor that we all know and it is really responsible for how we age.
  • Muscle is not very metabolically active at rest.
  • For every pound of skeletal muscle, it might at rest burn 10 calories primarily burning fatty acids at rest.

“Under-muscled”, Leucine & Muscle Health (00:11:25)

  • Being under-muscled is a problem that can be addressed through resistance training.
  • Increasing muscle mass is compatible with overall health and distinct from bodybuilding.
  • Skeletal muscle mass is important for optimal health, but there is no clear definition of how much is optimal.
  • DEXA scans are used to measure lean tissue, but they do not provide information about the health or quality of skeletal muscle mass.
  • The health of skeletal muscle is linked to blood markers such as triglycerides, insulin, and glucose.
  • Sarcopenia, a decrease in muscle mass and function, is a recently classified disease.
  • Skeletal muscle is a nutrient-sensing organ that is sensitive to the quality of the diet, particularly the amino acid leucine.
  • Consuming 30-50 grams of high-quality protein per meal stimulates muscle protein synthesis and muscle health.

Muscle Health (00:15:55)

  • Muscle health is not necessarily correlated with muscle size.
  • Inactivity can lead to unhealthy muscle, even in individuals with a lot of muscle mass.
  • Unhealthy muscle can have fat deposition, which affects its ability to contract and reduces mitochondrial efficiency.
  • Muscle health is characterized by the ability to adapt to changing demands, similar to packing for a trip.
  • Overeating, especially carbohydrates, can lead to overpacked skeletal muscle, resulting in elevated insulin, blood glucose, free fatty acids, and branch-chain amino acids.

Tool: Carbohydrate Consumption & Activity, Glycogen (00:19:45)

  • Muscle glycogen stores energy and can be depleted through intensive exercise. The liver stores about 100 grams of glycogen, while skeletal muscle can store up to 500 grams.
  • Carbohydrates should be consumed in small amounts throughout the day, with 40-50 grams per meal outside of exercise. A sedentary person should consume around 130 grams of carbohydrates per day, while an active person can consume up to 250 grams per day.
  • The brain is a primary user of carbohydrates, and individuals who engage in a lot of mental activity may need to consume more carbohydrates.
  • Carbohydrates provide four calories per gram, and a daily intake of 200 grams of carbohydrates is recommended. The remaining calories should be made up of a combination of protein and fat.
  • Protein is essential for building and repairing tissues, while fat provides energy and helps absorb certain vitamins.
  • A balanced diet that includes a variety of healthy foods from all food groups is important for optimal health and longevity.

Tools: Nutrition for Healthy Skeletal Muscle, First Meal (00:25:14)

  • Prioritize dietary protein for healthy body composition and skeletal muscle mass.
  • Carbohydrates should not be the primary focus, and a safe recommendation is 130 grams per day.
  • The first meal of the day should contain 30 to 50 grams of dietary protein to support muscle health.
  • The timing of the first meal is not as crucial for young and healthy individuals but becomes more important with age.
  • Both meat and plant proteins can be beneficial, and dietary protein consists of 20 different amino acids, 9 of which are essential and must be obtained from food.
  • The essential amino acids for skeletal muscle health are the branch chain amino acids, with leucine being particularly important.
  • Consuming 30 to 50 grams of protein at breakfast is necessary to adequately stimulate muscle protein synthesis and prevent sarcopenia and obesity.

Sponsor: AG1 (00:31:57)

  • Dr. Huberman has been taking AG1 for over 10 years.
  • AG1 is a nutritional supplement that provides vitamins, minerals, probiotics, and adaptogens.
  • Dr. Huberman takes AG1 once or twice a day to ensure he gets all the nutrients he needs.
  • AG1 is not a replacement for quality food but rather a supplement to help fill in any nutritional gaps.
  • Many people who take AG1 report feeling better in terms of energy levels, digestion, sleep, and more.
  • AG1 is designed to support all aspects of well-being related to mental and physical health.
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  • Dr. Huberman discusses the importance of exercise and nutrition for optimal health and longevity.
  • He emphasizes the importance of getting enough sleep, managing stress, and avoiding processed foods.
  • Dr. Huberman also provides specific recommendations for exercise and nutrition, including:
    • Exercise:
    • Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise most days of the week.
    • Include a mix of cardiovascular exercise, strength training, and flexibility exercises.
    • Listen to your body and stop if you feel pain.
    • Nutrition:
    • Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
    • Choose lean protein sources, such as fish, chicken, and beans.
    • Limit your intake of processed foods, sugary drinks, and unhealthy fats.
    • Drink plenty of water.
  • Dr. Huberman also discusses the importance of intermittent fasting and the benefits of a plant-based diet.

Quality Protein, Animal & Plant-Based Proteins (00:33:46)

  • Quality of protein is defined by amino acid composition.
  • Animal-based proteins have higher quality amino acid composition compared to plant-based proteins.
  • Plant-based proteins have a different composition similar to plants and can provide enough essential amino acids if the total caloric load is high enough.
  • The American diet is 70% plant-based, mostly refined carbohydrates, sugars, and refined oils.
  • Plant-based proteins often have carbohydrates that come along with them, which is important for overall metabolic control.
  • A rice pea blend of protein can be used for the first meal for those on a plant-based diet.
  • There is no evidence that combining high-quality protein with carbohydrates in the first meal is more or less beneficial than having protein alone.
  • Combining carbohydrates with protein can provide diversity, fiber, and phytonutrients if combined with berries, but it is not necessary.

Dietary Protein Recommendations, Meal Threshold (00:37:36)

  • The current RDA for protein is based on nitrogen balance studies and is set at 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight, which is the minimum to prevent a deficiency.
  • This recommendation has not changed since the 1980s, despite evidence suggesting that higher protein intake is beneficial for muscle health and healthy aging.
  • The RDA for leucine, an essential amino acid, is set at 2.7 grams per day, which is considered too low to support healthy aging or individuals with obesity or chronic illnesses.
  • Evidence suggests that a leucine intake of 2 to 3 times the RDA, closer to 9 grams per day, is needed for optimal health.
  • To meet this leucine requirement, a meal should contain at least 30 grams of protein, which is equivalent to a 4-ounce steak, six eggs, or a 25-gram whey protein shake.
  • Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is stimulated after exercise and lasts for about 2-3 hours.
  • Consuming protein after exercise can help maximize MPS and support muscle growth and recovery.
  • The amount of protein needed to stimulate MPS varies depending on individual factors such as age, activity level, and training goals.
  • In general, it is recommended to consume 0.25-0.4 grams of protein per pound of body weight within 2-3 hours after exercise.
  • Protein sources such as whey protein, eggs, and lean meats are quickly digested and absorbed, making them ideal for post-workout consumption.
  • The timing of protein intake is important for maximizing muscle protein synthesis and muscle growth.
  • Consuming protein throughout the day, including at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, is beneficial for maintaining muscle mass and supporting overall health.
  • Spreading protein intake across multiple meals and snacks can help ensure a consistent supply of amino acids to the muscles.
  • Skipping meals or going long periods without protein intake can lead to muscle loss and decreased muscle protein synthesis.

Muscle Health & Aging (00:41:19)

  • Skeletal muscle health is crucial for healthy aging.
  • Two main ways to stimulate skeletal muscle: resistance training and dietary protein.
  • Aging impairs the efficiency of muscle protein synthesis, leading to sarcopenia.
  • Sarcopenia can affect young individuals as well, not just the elderly.
  • Muscle span is the concept of maintaining skeletal muscle health throughout life.
  • Skeletal muscle health begins early in life and is influenced by factors such as protein intake and physical activity.
  • Sedentary lifestyle is a disease state in itself.
  • Older individuals require more protein per meal (40-50 grams) compared to younger individuals (30 grams) to stimulate muscle protein synthesis.
  • Skeletal muscle in older individuals can mount a youthful response to increased dietary protein.

Supplements & Creatine; Dietary Protein (00:46:02)

  • Do not supplement with leucine alone, as it affects the levels of other amino acids.
  • Supplement with essential amino acids or BCAAs if you have a low protein meal.
  • Creatine affects skeletal muscle health at 5 grams and brain health at 12 grams.
  • A 6-ounce steak or four scrambled eggs provide a small amount of creatine (around 2 grams).
  • We eat mixed meals, not single nutrients, so the quality of protein matters.
  • Plant-based proteins can provide all dietary protein, but require a higher intake (1.6 grams per kg) compared to high-quality animal proteins.

Tool: Dietary Protein Recommendation; Gout & Cancer Risk (00:50:07)

  • The recommended protein intake is 1 gram per pound of ideal body weight, not current body weight.
  • There is no evidence that a higher protein diet is detrimental to kidney or bone health.
  • The idea that a high protein diet can cause gout, liver issues, or increase the risk of cancer is unfounded.
  • Red meat consumption does not necessarily increase the risk of cancer. Obesity is a primary risk factor for many cancers.
  • A protein-forward diet combined with resistance training optimizes body composition and reduces the risk of obesity-related cancers.
  • Focus on compound movements that work multiple muscle groups at once.
  • Incorporate progressive overload by gradually increasing the weight or intensity of your workouts over time.
  • Prioritize protein in your diet, aiming for 1 gram per pound of ideal body weight.
  • Choose whole, unprocessed foods and limit added sugars and unhealthy fats.
  • Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water throughout the day.
  • Get enough sleep to allow your body to recover and repair.
  • Manage stress through relaxation techniques such as meditation or deep breathing.
  • Maintain a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular exercise.

Effects of Dietary Protein & Exercise on Body Composition (00:52:43)

  • A 12-month study found that overweight men and women who followed the Zone diet (40% carbs, 30% protein, 30% fat) lost 24% more weight than those who followed a standard American diet (55% carbs, 8% protein, 30% fat), even though both groups exercised the same amount.
  • Distributing protein evenly throughout the day helps maintain muscle mass and promotes weight loss.
  • A high protein diet, combined with resistance training, can lead to even greater fat loss and muscle preservation.
  • Individuals who consumed 1.6 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight and exercised lost significantly more body weight, fat, and less fat-free mass compared to those who consumed the recommended daily allowance of protein and exercised.

Thermic Effects, Protein (01:03:06)

  • The thermic effect of food refers to the energy required to metabolize macronutrients.
  • Carbohydrates require about 3-5% of their energy for metabolism, while protein requires 20-30%.
  • The energy used for protein metabolism is primarily for muscle protein synthesis, not nitrogen handling.
  • Optimal utilization of protein occurs when a minimum of 30 grams is consumed per dose.

Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:05:02)

  • InsideTracker is a personalized nutrition platform that analyzes blood and DNA data to provide insights into health and personalized recommendations for improvement.
  • InsideTracker provides specific directives related to nutrition, behavior modification, and supplementation to help individuals optimize their health.
  • InsideTracker membership offers discounted prices on comprehensive blood panels.

Protein & Satiety, Insulin & Glucose (01:06:14)

  • Eating protein and vegetables or fruits without starchy carbohydrates leads to a different experience compared to eating starchy carbohydrates alone.
  • The protein leverage hypothesis suggests that individuals continue eating to satisfy an amino acid need.
  • Dietary carbohydrates cause an insulinogenic effect, leading to lower blood sugar and potential overeating, while dietary protein causes a lesser insulin release.
  • The body can generate its own glucose through gluconeogenesis when consuming a higher protein diet.
  • Essential amino acids are crucial for various bodily functions, including serotonin production, mucin production in the gut, and skeletal muscle health.
  • Leucine is the primary essential amino acid for skeletal muscle health, and focusing on eating for the needs of skeletal muscle health can positively impact overall health and well-being.

Tool: Older Adults, Resistance Training & Dietary Protein (01:12:04)

  • Protein intake is crucial for maintaining muscle health and preventing muscle loss, especially as we age.
  • Consuming a high-quality protein breakfast can improve muscle health and mass even without resistance exercise, particularly for older adults.
  • Resistance training and dietary protein are essential for stimulating skeletal muscle growth and maintenance, becoming increasingly important with age.
  • Aim for 1 gram of protein per pound of ideal body weight or 1.6 grams per kilogram of body weight to support healthy aging.
  • The general population recommendations for exercise and eating for optimal health and longevity have not changed since 2010.
  • Combining exercise with a healthy diet is necessary for muscles to respond to exercise and maintain skeletal muscle health.

Dietary Protein, mTOR & Cancer Risk (01:17:48)

  • Protein loading without exercise is not advisable due to mTOR's effect throughout the body.
  • mTOR (mechanistic Target of rapamycin) is a protein complex that should not be constantly stimulated to minimize cancer risk.
  • mTOR is highly expressed in all cells during early development and growth, but its expression decreases over time.
  • Replacing mTOR in cells can make them appear and behave like young cells again, even restoring some regenerative capacity.
  • Increasing mTOR through various means can cause cells to grow enormously, potentially promoting the proliferation of pre-existing tumors.
  • Skeletal muscle is uniquely sensitive to contraction, which inhibits mTOR and allows for muscle protein synthesis.
  • The misconception that increased dietary protein causes cancer is a narrow perspective, as resistance training, which also stimulates mTOR, does not lead to cancer.
  • Some individuals take rapamycin to inhibit mTOR in hopes of extending their lifespan, but this can have negative effects on muscle growth and health.
  • mTOR has distinct roles in different tissues and at different time points throughout the lifespan.
  • Ingesting quality protein and resistance training can increase muscle protein synthesis via mTOR and other pathways.
  • Resistance training, despite stimulating mTOR, is not considered detrimental in the longevity space.

Muscle Span & Aging, Sedentary Behaviors (01:21:36)

  • Muscle stimulation efficiency declines with age.
  • Muscle span is important for maintaining muscle health as we age.
  • A diet rich in protein and regular movement can help maintain muscle health.
  • Aging is the great equalizer and creating good habits is essential for healthy aging.
  • Skeletal muscle health is crucial for longevity and is often overlooked.
  • Skeletal muscle insulin resistance can occur even in young, healthy individuals who are sedentary.
  • Sedentary behavior is a disease state and should not be considered innocuous.

Mixed Meals, Protein Quality, Fiber (01:24:00)

  • Aim for 1 gram of quality protein per pound of target body weight per day.
  • Distribute protein intake into meals that include 30 to 50 grams of protein per meal.
  • The first and last meals of the day are the most important for protein intake.
  • Skeletal muscle protein synthesis maxes out at around 55 grams of protein per meal.
  • Any protein ingested beyond what can be used for muscle protein synthesis is oxidized for energy.
  • A mixed meal with 50 grams of quality protein and 50 grams of carbohydrates will slow down absorption and digestion.
  • The quality of protein is important in a mixed meal to reach a threshold in the blood to stimulate tissue.
  • A mixed meal with 40 grams of protein from both animal and plant sources stimulated muscle protein synthesis, while a mixed meal with just plant-based proteins did not.
  • Fiber is valuable for the gut microbiome, satiation, and overall health.
  • Prioritize dietary protein when designing a diet, then parse out the rest of the carbohydrates based on exercise level.
  • Choose high-fiber sources of carbohydrates such as berries.

Inactivity & Insulin Resistance, Inflammation (01:29:21)

  • Insulin resistance, a major contributor to childhood obesity and hypertension, can be improved through regular exercise.
  • Skeletal muscle plays a vital role in nutrient consumption and insulin-independent glucose transport, with physical activity increasing the density of glute 4 receptors for improved glucose movement.
  • Despite the significance of muscle contraction, glute 4 expression, and exercise in promoting metabolic health, public health officials often overlook their importance.
  • Muscle health, encompassing strength, power, and the ability to perform eccentric movements, is crucial for optimal health and longevity, preventing life-ending injuries and preserving the body's architecture.
  • Inactivity and muscle loss can lead to metabolic derangement, fatty acid infiltration, insulin resistance, and chronic inflammation.

Exercise & Myokines, Brain Health & BDNF (01:38:43)

  • Skeletal muscle plays a vital role in overall health and longevity.
  • Resistance training releases myokines like interleukin-6 and irisin, which improve glucose utilization, reduce inflammation, and stimulate the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain.
  • BDNF is involved in neurogenesis and the consolidation of neural connections, helping maintain and improve brain function over time.
  • Resistance training is crucial for maintaining healthy skeletal muscle mass, essential for overall survivability and resistance to diseases like cancer.
  • Myokines released from skeletal muscle interact with immune system cells, influencing cytokine production and potentially modulating the inflammatory response.

Tool: Resistance Training Protocols, Hypertrophy, “High Ground” (01:44:11)

  • Dr. Gabrielle Lyon recommends resistance training for optimal health and longevity, focusing on compound movements that work multiple muscle groups through a full range of motion.
  • Resistance training should be a lifelong habit, and it's never too young or too old to start. Bodyweight resistance exercises are sufficient for many individuals, especially children and beginners.
  • The primary goal of resistance training should be hypertrophy, which is the growth of skeletal muscle mass, rather than simply maintaining muscle mass.
  • Training for hypertrophy with 5-10 reps and 3-4 sets is effective for muscle health.
  • Activities that focus on hypertrophy and maintaining type two muscle fibers are essential for overall health and longevity.

High Ground Exercises; Tendon Strength; Training Duration, Blue Zones (01:52:51)

  • Tendon strength takes time to develop, with a turnover rate of 0.5 to 1.5% per day, while muscle turnover is 1 to 2% per day.
  • A typical resistance training workout should include a 10-15 minute warm-up, 50-60 minutes of intense exercise, and a cool-down.
  • Avoid overtraining and leave some energy in reserve.
  • A three-day per week full-body workout is suitable for many individuals, especially beginners, with weekly progression for beginners and smaller improvements for advanced lifters.
  • Current physical activity guidelines recommend 5,000 daily steps, 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity, and two days of resistance training per week.
  • Many people are considered sedentary, falling short of these guidelines.
  • The blue zones, where people live longer and healthier lives, emphasize general physical activity and a higher protein intake rather than weight lifting.
  • Exercise is more crucial for overall body homeostasis compared to diet alone.
  • Protein consumption without exercise may not effectively prevent muscle loss.

Movement, Exercise & Older Adults (01:58:19)

  • Regular dynamic movement and coordination, such as skiing or tennis, can contribute to brain health and prevent brain atrophy.
  • Resistance training is crucial for maintaining muscle mass and overall health, especially for older individuals who often neglect it.
  • Intensity in training, rather than duration, is key for maintaining muscle mass as we age.
  • Lifting moderately heavy weights is sufficient for maintaining muscle mass in older adults, while extremely heavy loads are unnecessary.
  • Body composition changes, such as increased visceral body fat, can be positively influenced by combining training and proper nutrition.
  • Muscle quality should be defined by both functional movement measurements and the architecture and infrastructure of the skeletal muscle.
  • Dr. William Evans developed a method using D3 creatine to directly measure skeletal muscle mass, which has not been done appropriately in the past.
  • Skeletal muscle mass and strength are both important for overall health.

Tool: Protein Timing & Resistance Training; VO2 Max, Aging, Blood Work (02:04:25)

  • Consuming quality protein within an hour of resistance training, especially for older individuals or those with chronic conditions, can enhance muscle health and longevity.
  • A lower protein diet combined with resistance training can benefit from consuming a protein shake post-workout due to quicker absorption.
  • Cardiovascular training for V2 Max can be achieved through various methods, including slow steady-state activity, high-intensity interval training, moderate-intensity interval training, sprint interval training, or improving skeletal muscle mass through strength and hypertrophy training.
  • The ultimate goal is to maintain optimal health and longevity by achieving clinical outcomes such as appropriate blood pressure, low triglyceride levels, and healthy fasting insulin and glucose levels.
  • Higher protein diets and increased muscle mass can lead to higher blood glucose and creatinine levels.
  • Intense resistance training can cause transient elevations in ALT and liver enzymes.
  • Regular exercise, such as ultra-running, can help maintain muscle health and longevity.

Supplements: Creatine, Urolithin A, Whey Protein, Fish Oil, Collagen (02:11:13)

  • Creatine monohydrate improves muscle strength and brain function, especially in postmenopausal women and older adults.
  • Uthan A, a gut microbiome-derived postbiotic, enhances mitophagy, strength, and endurance.
  • A healthy gut microbiome is essential for translating resistance training into improved muscle health.
  • Whey protein concentrate or isolate provides essential amino acids and has minimal drawbacks, making it an excellent supplement for muscle health.
  • Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids positively impact brain function and may promote muscle growth.
  • The recommended daily intake of fish oil is around 4 grams, but some individuals may require up to 10 grams.
  • Blood tests can determine the optimal ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acids.
  • Collagen benefits skin, hair, nails, and potentially tendons.
  • A higher dose of collagen, approximately 25 grams per day, may be necessary for optimal results.
  • Collagen can be conveniently consumed once daily and can be added to coffee or broth.

Fasting, Older Adults; Tool: Meal Timing (02:20:18)

  • Dr. Gabrielle Lyon inadvertently practices intermittent fasting with her first meal at 11:00 a.m. and last meal around 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., resulting in a 2 to 4 meal eating window.
  • Benefits of fasting:
    • Calorie restriction
    • Bowel rest
  • Fasting may not be suitable for older individuals or those struggling to build muscle due to the need to balance muscle protein synthesis and catabolism.
  • Fasting can make it challenging to consume the recommended 30 to 50 grams of protein per meal to reach the goal of 1 gram of protein per pound of ideal body weight.
  • The first meal of the day, whenever consumed, has been studied for its impact on muscle protein synthesis.
  • Eating 30 to 50 grams of protein in the first meal triggers a muscle protein synthetic response that lasts for 2 hours.
  • Other initiation factors, like eif4, maintain themselves for an additional 4 to 5 hours.
  • The second meal is not necessarily about muscle protein synthesis, but it contributes to better 24-hour protein response and nitrogen balance.
  • The goal of the second meal is to consume enough protein to meet the daily requirement of 1 gram per pound of ideal body weight.
  • The final meal before fasting supports overnight protein synthesis, as the body draws from muscle to maintain energy balance during the fasted state.
  • For hypertrophy, adding an additional fourth meal would be beneficial in supporting muscle growth.

Animal Proteins & Dairy; Organ Meats, Vegan; Magnesium, Zinc (02:25:18)

  • Milk protein casein is slower absorbing and may be beneficial for muscle health, especially closer to bedtime.
  • High saturated fat dairy can be good for health and longevity.
  • Liver is high in fat-soluble vitamins and iron.
  • Salmon is a quality protein higher in fat, and fish has less protein per ounce compared to meat.
  • Heart is a good protein source and high in CoQ10, beneficial for muscle health.
  • Rice and pea protein blends are suitable options for vegans, and fermented protein powders have a similar profile to whey protein.
  • A vegan diet can be challenging as individuals age, requiring attention to B12, zinc, and iron intake.
  • Magnesium supplementation can be beneficial due to its depletion in the diet and its importance for overall health.
  • Zinc supplementation is not necessary if you follow a whole foods diet.
  • Zinc and copper ratios are considered indicators of overall brain health.

Medications & Muscle Health (02:30:59)

  • Ibuprofen, especially in high doses, may negatively impact muscle health, hypertrophy, and strength.
  • Statin use can cause muscle pain, soreness, and deplete CoQ10.
  • Anti-inflammatory medications like aspirin and NSAIDs can suppress skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength at certain doses.
  • Fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, can affect collagen and tendon turnover, increasing the risk of injuries like Achilles injuries.
  • Proton pump inhibitors used for stomach acid or reflux can affect the absorption of vitamins and minerals, leading to long-lasting effects.

Obesity & GLP-1 Analogs, Ozempic, Mounjaro, Skeletal Muscle (02:32:49)

  • GLP-1 analogs like Ozempic and Mounjaro are effective in promoting significant weight loss, with Ozempic causing an average of 13% weight loss and Mounjaro causing up to 22% weight loss over 24 weeks.
  • GLP-1 analogs can also improve alcohol consumption and other addictions.
  • These medications have been used safely for over a decade and their benefits outweigh the risks.
  • GLP-1 analogs require ongoing proper nutrition and exercise to maintain weight loss.
  • Protein has a satiating effect due to its stimulation of GLP-1.
  • The amount of protein required for muscle protein synthesis and muscle health is similar to the amount that significantly impacts GLP-1 release.

Benefits of Skeletal Muscle & Aging (02:40:48)

  • Skeletal muscle is the organ of longevity.
  • Healthy muscle is associated with better metabolic health, blood pressure, survivability, strength, mobility, and body armor.
  • Skeletal muscle is the only organ system with voluntary control and the only endocrine organ system with voluntary control.

Tools: Nutrition & Resistance Training for Muscle Health (02:42:16)

  • Dietary protein is the top nutrition-based tool for improving muscle health.
  • Protein hierarchy: roughly 1 gram per pound of ideal body weight, up to 1.7 grams per pound of ideal body weight.
  • Quality of protein matters, especially for older individuals or those with health challenges.
  • Protein distribution is less important for those consuming a high-protein diet.
  • Carbohydrates are helpful for fiber, phytonutrients, vitamins, and minerals.
  • Carbohydrate threshold: start at 130 grams and titrate up or down based on metabolic health and activity level.
  • Outside of activity, 50 grams or less of carbohydrates is recommended to mitigate substantial insulin response.
  • Fat can be chosen as desired and typically comes within a meal.
  • Resistance training is non-negotiable for muscle health.
  • Start with body weight or bands if needed, then move to load.
  • Aim for two to three days of resistance training per week.
  • Volume and intensity should be adjusted based on individual needs.
  • High-intensity interval training is recommended over slow steady-state cardio.

Mindset Tools: Standards vs. Goals; Vulnerability Points (02:45:44)

  • Mindset and self-directed health are key to achieving optimal health and longevity.
  • Setting standards for oneself, rather than goals, is essential for effective execution and results.
  • Identifying patterns of people, not just diseases, allows physicians to leverage individuals' strengths and weaknesses for better outcomes.
  • Understanding one's points of vulnerability is crucial for staying on track and maintaining health.
  • Maintaining a level of neutrality is necessary for overall success, as the healthiest individuals are able to maintain this balance.
  • Long-term strategies for overall health are essential as the window of youth closes and diligence in health responsibilities becomes more important.

Mindset Tools: Neutrality; Health & Worth (02:52:00)

  • Emotional neutrality aids in managing emotional extremes, promoting health and well-being, and can be developed over time.
  • Feeling worthy of health and wellness is crucial for achieving optimal health, as individuals who don't feel worthy may sabotage their efforts and focus on negative aspects.
  • Muscle is essential for maintaining health, longevity, and health span.
  • Mindset tools are vital for success in any health plan, and Dr. Gabrielle Lyon provides practical tools for nutrition, exercise, supplementation, and mindset.
  • Dr. Lyon supports communities in need, such as the military community, and shares her knowledge through various platforms, including social media, her podcast, and her book.

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  • Dr. Gabrielle Lyon is a physician, scientist, and author who specializes in women's health and longevity.
  • She is the author of the book "Forever Strong: The Science of Strength Training and How It Can Transform Your Body, Mind, and Life."
  • She has a podcast called "The Dr. Gabrielle Lyon Show."
  • Her website has additional resources on women's health and longevity.
  • Resistance training is essential for building and maintaining muscle mass, which is important for overall health and longevity.
  • Resistance training can also help to improve bone density, reduce body fat, and improve insulin sensitivity.
  • The best resistance training program includes a variety of exercises that target all major muscle groups.
  • It is important to lift weights heavy enough to challenge the muscles, but not so heavy that form is compromised.
  • Start with a weight that allows you to do 8-12 repetitions with good form.
  • Gradually increase the weight as you get stronger.
  • Focus on compound exercises that work multiple muscle groups at once, such as squats, deadlifts, bench presses, and overhead presses.
  • Do 2-3 sets of each exercise.
  • Rest for 60-90 seconds between sets.
  • Train each muscle group 2-3 times per week.
  • Make sure to warm up before your workout and cool down afterwards.
  • Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water before, during, and after your workout.
  • Listen to your body and stop if you feel pain.
  • Eat a diet rich in whole, unprocessed foods.
  • Focus on eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein.
  • Choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, avocado, and nuts.
  • Limit your intake of added sugar, saturated fat, and processed foods.
  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Avoid sugary drinks, such as soda and juice.
  • Limit your alcohol intake.
  • Eat a variety of foods to ensure you are getting all the nutrients your body needs.
  • Talk to your doctor or a registered dietitian if you have any questions about your diet.
  • Get 7-8 hours of sleep per night.
  • Create a relaxing bedtime routine to help you fall asleep more easily.
  • Avoid caffeine and alcohol before bed.
  • Make sure your bedroom is dark, quiet, and cool.
  • If you have trouble sleeping, talk to your doctor.
  • Find healthy ways to manage stress, such as exercise, yoga, meditation, or spending time in nature.
  • Avoid chronic stress, as it can have negative effects on your health.
  • Talk to a therapist if you are struggling to manage stress.
  • Consider taking supplements to support your health and longevity, such as vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, and a multivitamin.
  • Talk to your doctor before taking any supplements.

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