This is How Insulin Resistance Starts (and how to stop it early)

This is How Insulin Resistance Starts (and how to stop it early)

Intro (00:00:00)

  • Simon and Thomas discuss glucose, fat loss, and continuous glucose monitors.
  • They mention Roy Taylor's hypothesis on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

How Insulin Resistance Develops (00:01:35)

  • Roy Taylor's twin cycle hypothesis explains how insulin resistance develops and leads to type 2 diabetes.
  • Excess energy or energy toxicity is at the center of this model.
  • Some people have a better capability of storing excess energy in subcutaneous fat depots than others.
  • Those with less capability of storing fat subcutaneously will have fat spilling over earlier into visceral fat.
  • Visceral fat is fat in organs, particularly the liver and pancreas, and can also be found in muscle tissue.
  • Ectopic fat refers to fat in the wrong places, such as visceral fat.
  • Insulin resistance in the liver occurs when fat accumulates in the liver tissue, leading to an inability to turn off glucose release into the bloodstream.
  • Insulin resistance in muscle tissue can also occur when excess fat is stored within muscle cells, impairing glucose uptake.
  • As fat accumulates in the liver and pancreas, insulin resistance worsens, leading to elevated blood sugar and potentially type 2 diabetes.
  • The personal fat threshold refers to the amount of fat someone can carry before developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
  • There may be a limit to how much fat someone can gain, as visceral fat storage can deteriorate metabolic health.
  • Visceral fat is a significant problem for insulin resistance, but the precise mechanisms, such as inflammation, are not fully understood.
  • Excess fat stored in liver cells causes insulin resistance within the liver, with over 6% liver fat being a critical threshold.
  • Insulin resistance can occur at different levels, including muscle cell resistance, glucose intolerance, impaired liver glucose regulation, and inflammatory responses.
  • Type 2 diabetes involves various mechanisms of insulin resistance, and its diagnosis criteria may be loose due to different underlying causes.

How a Fatty Liver Contributes to Insulin Resistance (00:12:00)

  • Liver fat is a major contributor to insulin resistance.
  • Energy toxicity, a diet providing excess energy, is the primary factor in the development of insulin resistance at the liver.
  • Simple sugars and saturated fats drive hepatic fat more than unsaturated fats, even in a hypercaloric state.
  • Saturated fats increase hepatic fat even at energy balance.
  • Reducing visceral fat and liver fat below 6% is crucial for improving insulin resistance.
  • Unsaturated fats are better than saturated fats, and unrefined carbohydrates are better than refined sugars.

Lowering Blood Sugar (00:16:38)

  • Reducing saturated fats and restricting calories can help reduce liver fat and improve insulin resistance.
  • The type of diet that feels easiest and allows for sustainable weight loss is the best approach.
  • Diet quality matters, with a focus on unrefined carbohydrates, unsaturated fats, and fiber-rich foods.
  • Reducing glucose spikes may have an impact on reducing liver fat, but more research is needed.

The Best Diet For You (00:20:45)

  • There is no one-size-fits-all diet for insulin resistance.
  • Personalization is critical in finding a diet that allows for a sustained calorie deficit and weight loss.
  • Low-carb, high-fat diets and high-carb, low-fat diets can both be effective in managing blood glucose and insulin resistance.
  • Avoiding processed foods, refined sugars, and excessive saturated fats is important.
  • Finding a balance between macronutrients and focusing on food quality is key.

Early vs Late-Stage Insulin Resistance (00:24:58)

  • The degree of insulin resistance and the duration of type 2 diabetes play a role in determining the best approach.
  • Early-stage insulin resistance may respond well to low-carb diets due to preserved mitochondrial function.
  • As insulin resistance worsens, reducing saturated fats and improving mitochondrial health become more important.
  • A personalized approach that addresses the underlying causes of insulin resistance is essential.

Low Carb vs Low Fat Diets (00:27:11)

  • Low carb diets may lead to slightly more weight loss than low-fat diets in the first 6 months, possibly due to water weight loss.
  • Low carb diets can increase resting energy expenditure (REE) initially due to the body's response to the sudden lack of carbohydrates.
  • The increased REE can contribute to more calorie burn, but it eventually plateaus.
  • Weight loss success depends on what works best for each individual.

What Would Simon Do If Diagnosed With Type-2 Diabetes? (00:30:20)

  • Roy Taylor's research suggests a highly restricted calorie diet of 800 calories per day for 8-12 weeks can lead to significant weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
  • After the initial weight loss, a gradual transition to a sustainable diet is recommended to maintain the weight loss long-term.

Is Losing Weight Fast Safe? (00:31:58)

  • Recent research indicates that losing weight fast is not necessarily worse or better than losing weight slowly.
  • Losing weight quickly can be beneficial as it allows individuals to reach a healthier weight sooner and reap the positive health effects.
  • However, it's important to consider lean body mass and ensure adequate protein intake to prevent excessive muscle loss.

Should You Exercise When Losing Weight Fast? (00:33:41)

  • The research group that recommended the 800-calorie diet advised against starting significant exercise during the calorie restriction period.
  • Adding exercise can increase hunger, potentially hindering weight loss efforts.
  • Resistance training may be considered to maintain muscle mass during calorie restriction.

Do This If Insulin Resistant (00:35:50)

  • Insulin-independent glucose uptake can be achieved by moving the body, regardless of the stage of insulin resistance.
  • Finding a diet that encourages physical activity is crucial for weight loss and overall health.

Weight Loss Is More Than Just Selecting The Right Diet (00:37:00)

  • Weight loss involves more than just choosing the right foods and macronutrient ratios.
  • Factors such as stress management, sleep quality, and relationship management also play significant roles in weight loss.

Simon & Thomas' Tips for Maintaining a Healthy Weight (00:37:46)

  • Keep saturated fat under 20% of total fat calories.
  • Move the body every day through resistance training or other forms of exercise.
  • Throttle carbohydrate intake based on activity level.
  • Increase monounsaturated fats in place of saturated fats.
  • Focus on protein for its thermic effect and ability to maintain glucose balance.

Carbohydrates (00:39:46)

  • Think about carbohydrates for performance and replenishing glycogen stores.
  • Consume carbohydrates after a workout.
  • Choose carbohydrates that provide fiber, prebiotic fiber, and different types of fiber to feed different strains of bacteria and increase short-chain fatty acids.
  • Fiber can affect hunger, GLP-1 levels, and PYY levels.

Protein (00:40:54)

  • Ensure adequate protein intake, especially if following a plant-based diet.
  • Resistance training is critical for maintaining lean mass.
  • Protein intake of 1.3-1.6g per kg of body weight is optimal for maximizing strength.

Fats (00:42:12)

  • Saturated fat is not inherently bad, but the dose matters.
  • High saturated fat intake can increase hepatic fat and apoB levels.
  • Individual response to saturated fat can vary based on genetics.
  • Monitor apoB levels and adjust saturated fat intake accordingly.
  • Choose unsaturated fats such as olive oil, avocados, nuts, seeds, and tofu over saturated fat-rich foods like coconut oil and palm oil.

Other Factors (00:43:54)

  • Optimize sleep, stress management, and relationships for overall health and well-being.

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